"Nowadays, there is a tendency to say that our communes are too poor and therefore unable to generate enough income to carry out meaningful actions, particularly with respect to providing public services.
[In reality, it] involves collecting just enough funds to deliver the services needed to provide every person with a decent living environment in these early days of the 21st century."
- André Lafontant Joseph, 2013. La mobilisation fiscale communale, pp. xv-xvi
With Haiti’s adoption of the Constitution of 1987 after President Duvalier was deposed, Haitian legislators set up a decentralized State that was to promote respect for fundamental rights, citizen participation, the delivery of State-funded services throughout the country, and better management of public and private property. The Constitution defines a commune as the local level of government. Communes are intended to be politically, administratively and financially autonomous.
Thirty-two years later, it is clear that this social covenant seeking a more just and inclusive society is still struggling to emerge. The Haitian government remains largely centralized. As proof, it took nearly 20 years to adopt the 2006 Charte des Collectivités Territoriales (charter of territorial communities, or CCT), which clarifies the responsibilities and workings of communes. Furthermore, major challenges remain as far as democratic governance is concerned. There was a five-year electoral void from 2012 to 2016, before local elections once again provided legitimate governance to the country’s 146 communes. Change is slow and tenuous, and a third essential milestone of decentralization—financial decentralization—remains unachieved. Without some degree of autonomy and predictability of resources, communes are unable to plan, govern and act effectively. As a result, local democracy and services to the population suffer.
According to the World Bank, "only 0.6 percent of GDP is currently spent at the communal level, and total municipal revenue makes up only 1.7 percent of total revenue."1 This reality is significantly out of step with the demand for local infrastructure and services. That is what tax mobilization is all about.
There are many challenges, but this case study shows that communes are part of the solution. By investing in the development of built property inventories and establishing a civic culture of fiscal responsibility, communes are bringing about positive change, building the future of their communities and the Haitian nation.
Why this case study? This study is the result of a reflection carried out with Haitian partners on how to foster the development of communes. It relates the experience of the commune of Port-au-Prince and those of the Les Palmes region. These initiatives were supported by Canadian municipal experts and local consultants as part of the Haiti-Canada Municipal Cooperation Program – Phase 2 (PCM2).
As the PCM2 draws to a close, project partners would like to highlight the approaches, outcomes, lessons learned and challenges associated with tax mobilization in order to consolidate these advances. Successful tax mobilization for communes is a long-term project that requires the collaboration of local and national actors. We believe that this reflection will be of interest to other communes involved in similar endeavours, national decision-makers and technical and financial partners of Haitian decentralization.
Methodology: This case study is based on group interviews conducted between March and July 2018 with local elected officials, partner communes’ staff, and representatives of civil society. A targeted literature review also contributed to the exercise. This information was further enhanced by meetings with Canadian and Haitian experts.
Furthermore, an effort was made to compare the experience of the PCM2’s partners with those of other Haitian communes. This occurred within the framework of the Franco-Haitian Decentralized Cooperation Conference held in Port-au-Prince on December 5 & 6, 2017 and during a workshop on tax mobilization organized in collaboration with the country’s department of the interior and territorial communities, the Ministère de l’Intérieur et des Collectivités Territoriales (MICT). The PCM2 team holds regular discussions with the MICT’s Direction des Collectivités Territoriales (department of territorial communities, or DCT) and the Ministère de l’Économie et des Finances (MEF) tax department, the Direction Générale des Impôts (DGI).
2. WHAT EXACTLY IS TAX MOBILIZATION?
At the local level, tax mobilization is a process aimed at collecting municipal property taxes and fees. It aims to define the commune’s tax base in order to collect the funds needed to carry out projects for the community. The PCM2 works with Port-au-Prince and the communes of the Les Palmes region—Léogane, Petit-Goâve, Grand-Goâve and Gressier—to help them generate property taxes. These interventions are part of a comprehensive support framework for each of these communes2.
In principle, several types of own-source revenue are available to Haitian local governments, including license fees (a business registration tax), a billboard tax and a cemetery tax. The City of Montreal has supported Port-au-Prince city hall in this regard. The current phase of the PCM2 has a particular focus on the CFPB, a tax on developed properties, as it has the greatest potential for growth and stability and can be applied to communes throughout the country3.
Moreover, knowledge of a commune’s territory and land organization provides an indispensable foundation for developing a master plan for urban planning and economic development. How can the authorities react to the need for a new school without knowing where to build it? How can they respond to requests from investors from industry or the hospitality sector without being able to offer them land and develop the required infrastructures? Land and the corresponding taxation must become the priority in municipal management.
Local taxation is one topic that generates significant interest in Haiti. A relatively comprehensive legal framework on the topic already exists and includes several decrees, including on the organization and workings of local authorities, community revenues, budgeting and public accounting and land taxes on built properties. Pilot projects have also been carried out in various communes in order to set up tax mobilization.
The PCM2 approach is based on four main principles:
Principle 1 – No taxation without representation. Local politicians play an essential role in tax mobilization. They are central to the governance of local plans and budgets and are accountable to the people. This role includes communicating and raising taxpayer awareness. Elected officials must also play a regulatory role and be able to apply sanctions in the event of abuses by owners, such as when occupants’ living conditions are found to be too precarious. Ultimately, it is about building trust between local government and the community it serves.
Principle 2 – No taxation without public services. The tax mobilization exercise involves setting up a government structure capable of demonstrating value to the community in the form of public services or projects. These include collecting garbage, developing and maintaining public spaces, schools and streets, implementing a civic addressing scheme for buildings, and so on.
Principle 3 – The need for structures to provide communes with technical support. The success and sustainability of tax mobilization requires systems development and capacity building, both of which are lacking at the communal level. Support for technical agencies (public or private), or for services shared by communes (such as the Communauté des Municipalités de la Région des Palmes, or CMRP4) is essential. This support and the structures it relies on must also be designed for the long term.
Principle 4 – The importance of intergovernmental relations. Tax mobilization requires systematic information sharing between city halls and other government institutions, including the Direction générale des impôts (Haiti’s tax department, or DGI), and the Direction des Collectivités Territoriales (department of territorial communities, or DCT). The departments and agencies in charge must contribute to and learn from the initiatives implemented in the communes. Other relevant professionals, such as notaries and surveyors, must also be involved in monitoring and validating procedures from a legal standpoint.
3. TAX MOBILIZATION IN PORT-AU-PRINCE AND THE LES PALMES REGION
The approach implemented by the PCM2’s partner communes can be divided into three main phases: preparing the exercise, taking inventory and, finally, implementing tax mobilization.
Phase 1: Planning, preparation and organization
The preparatory phase is key to the operation’s success. It consists in involving municipal staff and informing the public so that everyone understands, at their own level, the exercise the commune is embarking on. It is important to identify the context, including the political and administrative culture and the community, and to intervene accordingly. This is the responsibility of the mayor and the city manager.
Specific technical teams need to be created. They must have a clear understanding of the method and tools that will be used, and the role that everyone plays in the process. In Port-au-Prince, the city council hired a private firm to carry out the census. Teams consisting of an inspector from city hall and a private-sector technician ensured that the inspectors received training. In the Les Palmes region, this service is provided to the communes either by the Direction administrative et technique de l’intercommunalité des Palmes (DATIP)—the administrative and technical department of the Les Palmes region’s communes—or a private firm.
Before starting the exercise, the commune must ask itself the following key questions:
- Are elected officials committed to carrying out tax mobilization in their commune?
- Has the municipal team attended the training and fully understood it? And does it understand the rules, method and tools that will be used?
- Does the commune have the necessary editorial and geographical expertise to carry out the census?
- Is a rigorous system in place to control quality and census data integrity?
- Has a detailed work plan clarifying roles and responsibilities been prepared and disseminated?
- Has a communication plan been developed to inform and engage the public?
- Is an appropriate organization in place to manage disputes and clarify contradictions?
The commune must then roll out a communication strategy to raise awareness and inform citizens. As explained by Luc Desbiens, a Canadian expert working as part of the PCM2 and former Assistant Director of Urban Planning at the City of Saguenay: “Carrying out an inventory of properties is tricky. It affects something the citizens are sensitive about: their land and their homes. Rolling out this phase of the project means working with the public. This is the most important phase. The public must understand what the commune does and why."
In the case of the communes of the Les Palmes region, each of the city halls has set up a steering committee made up of representatives from the commune, certain local government institutions (DGI, police, justice) and local civil society. In Port-au-Prince, the mayor’s office has conducted a campaign to reach citizens through the media (radio and television) and public meetings (tour of neighbourhoods by the mayor).
Creating functional and democratic public institutions calls for a transformation of mentalities and practices, changes that are not without their challenges. Some initial reluctance is to be expected on the part of local governments, elected officials and tax experts. Resistance is linked to the way things worked in the past, marked by laxity and accommodations that often gave way to arbitrariness and entitlement.
For this phase to succeed, two issues need to be addressed. The first challenge is that, for politicians, the tax mobilization exercise imposes a financial cost on their electoral base. They may therefore be tempted to establish specific rules, e.g. limiting the collection effort to “major taxpayers,” or exempting certain taxpayers, e.g. the poorest. However, the politicization of tax mobilization must be avoided—the rules must be fair and equitable for all. Specific programs to help disadvantaged families should be set up explicitly, rather than on a discretionary basis. Elected officials should be provided with solid arguments so that they can defend the project effectively. Providing services to the public is one key argument. The public will also feel reassured and secure if the commune recognizes that the owner of a building has paid his or her taxes and is identified as the official owner.
The second challenge is that of community involvement. Communes have few mechanisms to promote dialogue and the exchange of information with citizens. Changing partisan practices and bringing local government closer to the community represents a profound change. Speaking on local radio stations, one of the mayors suggested to the citizens of his commune that they not pay the CFPB because the principal mayor was managing it poorly. The PCM2 also had to deal with appointed leaders until the elections held in late 2015, which considerably slowed the pace of change. For example, the mayor of Port-au-Prince did not take office until June 2016.
Steering committee – The experience of the communes of the Les Palmes region.
The steering committees’ mandate is to involve the public in the commune’s decision-making process, to provide channels for communicating with the community and to ensure that the commune meets its commitments. The communes initially established these mechanisms with the explicit aim of contributing to the census of built properties for tax mobilization purposes.
The steering committees were set up following several meetings to which local organizations, identified by the municipal administrations, were invited. Each of the city halls first sent out an invitation to the various sectors of society, asking them to appoint at least one delegate. This group of 15 to 30 people was meant to represent the community, including women: representatives of grassroots community organizations, the religious sector, the press, the justice system, the police, and so on. Once the committees had been set up, the town halls issued decrees confirming that they had been created.
The steering committee is an open and voluntary group that anyone can join. To run it, a nine-person governing board was elected from among the members: one secretary general, one assistant secretary general, one treasurer, three councillors and three delegates. This group’s role is to work with city hall to establish the rules of procedure, discuss meeting agendas, coordinate and ensure that they run smoothly, and draft the minutes.
Once the census of built properties was completed, the communes decided in 2017 to turn the steering committees into "citizen committees." They are similar to the Conseil de Développement Communal (communal development council, or CDC) provided for by law and aim to serve as a link between the people and the communal administration.
The citizen committees serve primarily to support awareness and run information campaigns on the importance of paying taxes, but also to monitor the use of public funds following the increase in communal revenues. They are involved in the preselection of certain public projects to ensure that they meet the needs of the public (women and men), and in the supervision of efforts to prevent and help manage disputes.
Phase 2: Inventory of built properties and implementation of the processes
The second major step in carrying out the tax mobilization exercise is to establish the tax base. The inventory of properties must be carried out in a rigorous and systematic fashion throughout the territory, based on the unambiguous location of each building on a map or an aerial or satellite image. Among other things, this census includes architectural features, sanitary facilities, surface area, use, condition, connection to utilities, socio-economic zone, knowledge of who the occupants are and rents collected, if applicable.
Historical overview of the implementation of tax mobilization
Commune of Port-au-Prince
2014-2015: Inventory of the tax department’s premises, analysis of existing data, refurbishment of the building housing the tax department, installation of furniture and computer equipment. Compilation of the MS Access database to manage the old tax roll.
2015-2016: Development of new tools for the tax department and staff training. Testing of new census tools in the field and codification of approximately 52,000 buildings.
2016-2017: Preparation of the methodology for evaluating built properties, creation of the register and preparation of the call for tenders. Census of 52,761 buildings by joint teams (private firm and inspectors from city hall). Creation of the MySQL/Commutax database. Use of census data through Civitax. Transfer of data to the DGI.
2017: Training of tax department managers and staff. Categorization of tax files. Development of a plan and distribution of tax assessment notices. Data entry
Communes of the Les Palmes region
2010–2012: Creation of the CMRP and organization of DATIP.
2013: Start of the inventory program for the FCPB—methodology, equipment and training.
2014: Finalization of inventories for Grand-Goâve and Petit-Goâve (18,000 units counted).
2014: Identification of the principles of property evaluation.
2014–2015: Creation of databases to manage inventories and the CFPB.
2016: Carrying out of inventories for Gressier and Léogâne (12,000 units counted).
2015–2016: Adjustments to databases as per new government policy.
2017–2018: Roll-out of civic addressing and numbering projects. Transfer of data to the DGI. Printing and distribution of tax assessment notices for the 2016-2017 fiscal year.
This phase involves the basic census, the development of IT tools, the processing of data used to establish the tax base, staff training and support for local tax specialists. The files are then corrected (with the tax specialists), information is kept up to date and measures to ensure database quality and integrity are implemented. The commune’s staff (communication officers, accounting department, cartography department) also needs support.
To illustrate the financial effort that goes into the census, the PCM2 compared its implementation costs for the communes of Gressier and Léogâne. The former called on the services of an external firm, while the latter mandated DATIP. In both cases, the initial mandate was to count 6,000 buildings.
|Cost of the census
|Number of units
|Cost per unit in CAD
|Cost per unit in HTG
The inventory process must be accompanied by the creation of a database that calculates the applicable taxes in a controlled and automatic manner. As communes cannot carry out an inventory every year, it must be possible to update the data regularly. Furthermore, manual operations and calculations are subject to errors. Careful upstream work, administrative discipline and the use of information management technologies make it possible to put in place a system that will support the commune’s development in the medium and long terms. The digitalization of procedures also makes it possible to eliminate vulnerable and falsifiable paper files and maintain the traceability of operations, which makes it easy to determine whether and by whom the taxes for a given property have been paid.
The central government provides computer tools, including Civitax, to help local governments organize the information generated by their inventory. These tools constitute a very useful base with which communes can organize the information their inventory generates. However, improvements should be considered, in particular to make it possible to calculate the value of buildings and applicable tax automatically to eliminate discretionary practices and promote transparency. Statistical approaches to classifying buildings according to criteria of surface area, type, comfort level and rent can bring about a homogenization of practices, while justifying the requested tax amounts, which will be useful arguments for owners who refuse or are reluctant to pay their taxes.
For the commune’s team, the main challenge in this phase is learning new ways of doing things by acquiring knowledge, skills and tools. For example, for all tax specialists in the Les Palmes region, it meant a completely new management method that involved organizing the distribution of tax accounts to taxpayers. In the first year (2016-2017), they had to develop methods for creating teams, monitoring, adjusting and responding to problem cases, all of which was new. However, by the following year, these tasks were already being better managed. And for the public, everything was new too. A large proportion of citizens had never heard of the CFPB. Organizational change is an operation that requires the commitment and buy-in of elected officials and staff. This should not be underestimated. .
Phase 3: Tax mobilization
Tax mobilization is aimed at collecting municipal taxes and fees, and in the case at hand, involves conducting and delivering CFPB tax assessment notices. The final step is to prepare and distribute these slips to taxpayers. This takes considerable effort, as the number of potential taxpayers is high and the slips need to be distributed door-to-door. In addition, given the lack of civic addresses5, identifying and following up with taxpayers can be challenging. Having a detailed map of every building’s location can provide a significant advantage. Finally, information on payers and mounts collected must be kept up to date in order to facilitate the monitoring of the tax assessment process. In the long run, the system should enable the commune’s tax specialist to refer to the information on a regular basis.
The table below provides an example of the costs associated with the operation.
Total cost of tax mobilization for the first year, based on the delivery of 30,000 assessment notices in the Les Palmes region
The results of tax mobilization in Port-au-Prince and the four communes of the Les Palmes region are presented below. In Port-au-Prince, the decrease between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 fiscal years was due to successive changes in administration; tax collection was not seen as a priority, as the operation was seen as not yielding immediate results. The built properties census was finalized in February 2017 (52,671 properties) and the results of the 2017-2018 exercise have been published.
In Les Palmes, clear revenue growth occurred between 2015 and 2017 as a result of more systematic and organized efforts by all communes to collect their taxes. In 2017-2018, the taxes collected decreased significantly, due to the fact that the government changed the rules for calculating the CFPB. The PCM2 estimated the reduction to be 41% on average, based on a sample of 30,000 properties. This major change demotivated some communes, but there has nevertheless been an increase in the number of paying taxpayers in Gressier and Léogâne.
Changes in the amounts collected (HTG)
Changes in the number of payers
In this final stage, the first challenge is to distribute tax slips to taxpayers. As already noted, distribution is hindered by the lack of landmarks (addresses) and names of individuals, the impossibility of locating certain buildings, as well as the lack of cooperation and occasional aggressiveness on the part of some citizens.
Second, the collection and management of taxes involves the risk of misappropriation. Corruption is a major challenge and can take many forms. However, local solutions are well known. Elected officials and leaders must adhere to and promote the principle of public interest. The automatic calculation (using computer tools) of property values and taxes and the commune’s distribution of notices of assessment have also helped to improve matters. Other success factors include the professionalization of key positions, adequate compensation of public servants and transparent processes (including written and audited transaction records). Lastly, mechanisms must be put in place to ensure that the commune manages funds appropriately.
The third challenge relates to the role of the DGI, which is responsible for tax collection and account reconciliation. Reconciling information between the communes and the DGI is complicated, and the communes are not able to easily determine which taxpayers have paid. All they see is the revenues. The DGI also has an important role to play in monitoring data and collecting amounts from late or recalcitrant taxpayers. However, the DGI’s enforcement powers are few and weak. City halls and the DGI must therefore work together, with a progressive vision, to find solutions to get taxpayers to meet tax deadlines.
Strasbourg and Jacmel’s experience with decentralized cooperation
Within the framework of decentralized cooperation, the city of Strasbourg, France, has been twinned with the commune of Jacmel for 30 years. In the aftermath of the 2010 earthquake, a tax census campaign regarding built property was carried out and covered more than 40,000 buildings.
The census was conducted by cross-checking the work done by field enumerators, who filled in forms with the occupants of the buildings, and identifying and locating each building individually from a satellite image. This low-cost, faster option was chosen over use of the classic surveyor-generated cadastral diagram or GPS localization. In this way, a solid repository of built property was created: contours were digitalized using polygons marking the limits of the houses. After a test on a small area, it became apparent that a field team was necessary. An information campaign took place before 60 residents and six trained supervisors tallied the land data covering 40 criteria, consolidating an exhaustive reference system for 40,000 buildings over six months.
Occupant status, comfort and access to utilities were all recorded in a database and detailed on the map. Finally, a multi-criteria statistical analysis carried out by a geographer made it possible to categorize buildings, compare them with known rental properties, and define the amount of property tax on buildings.
The mayor and general manager are responsible for communicating their commune’s strategic and operational vision. At the heart of this responsibility is tax mobilization—securing resources so that the administration can deliver services to the public.
As this case study illustrates, there are many challenges. The PCM2 experience clearly shows that it is possible to make significant progress in a relatively short time. An assessment of the project yielded three main lessons.
Lesson 1: The vision and determination of local leaders are essential. Decentralization and tax mobilization in Haiti are emerging processes. The fiscal potential of communes is not well known. The aim should be to gradually increase communes’ capacities and revenues and to engage the community in this effort. The commune must persist and learn from its own experience in order to improve over time. These reforms require elected officials and leaders who have the interests of their communities at heart and who are determined to make a difference while promoting a truly "public" vision of the institution.
The experience of the communes of Port-au-Prince and the Les Palmes region reveals the importance of leadership in successfully implementing tax mobilization. There is a real cost and effort involved in establishing the property inventory and the required administrative capacity. These political, organizational and financial “costs” become an “investment” when part of a broader local development process. Land and property inventories are invaluable assets for communes. They are an investment in the future, not only for tax mobilization but also for territorial management, planning and economic development. Politicians and leaders must understand and exert effective control over these issues, which empower them to acquire more knowledge about the territory they manage and its people, in order to identify how built properties are used and occupied and then decide, at the local level, how to respond to the population’s needs and demands.
Lesson 2: It is possible to establish stronger administrative capacity for local tax mobilization. Haitian communes lack this capacity, particularly with respect to the technical challenges of taking a census of the territory, setting up databases and processing information. Deficiencies in human, financial and material resources are the reasons behind this reality. Ignoring them guarantees failure and so must be taken into account and deliberately addressed.
Port-au-Prince city hall has acquired administrative autonomy, which now allows it to carry out tax collection operations and the resulting management autonomously. For their part, the communes of the Les Palmes region have received instrumental support to set up models and practices that will set a precedent in the country. The success and sustainability of the effort requires structures and partnerships that will support communes over the long term. DATIP is a good example of the type of structure that is capable of supporting and providing services to local governments. It is the tool that the mayors of the Les Palmes region have adopted to support their own development. Similar or new forms of collaboration are both desirable and necessary.
Lesson 3: Citizens are willing to pay their taxes. Why would a citizen want to pay taxes? The success of tax mobilization is closely tied to the commune’s ability to engage the community it serves and demonstrate concrete benefits in the form of services. Despite the absence of a culture of tax obligation, the experience of the PCM2’s partners shows that this transition is possible, even within a short time frame.
In the words of Karim Charef, an urban planner at the City of Montreal who contributed to the project:"We found that people were happy that the commune came knocking at their door to conduct the census, provide information and, in the end, send them a tax bill. Firstly, it acknowledges the people’s existence. It may seem trivial, but this relationship with the commune formalizes their existence in its territory. Secondly, by paying their taxes, citizens expect a service in return."
The flip side of the citizen’s tax obligation is a local government that is more transparent about its priorities, revenues and expenditures. The commune must present a service vision to its citizens. A communications and accountability strategy, as well as the appropriate mechanisms, must be implemented and include public meetings, communications activities, citizen committees and so on. However, this can represent a major change for communes not used to such things.
The tax census is also an important step in the official, shared process of protecting the population’s property and assets, one that is compatible with the goals of the administrative bodies. Lastly, the census makes it possible to become a regulatory body to homogenize and balance practices and avoid abuses in the real estate market and rent collection.
All the communes presented in this study have made a deliberate effort to carry out small projects well within view of their communities. These projects serve as concrete examples that help bring tax-paying citizens on board. In the long run, once citizens are aware of them, tax mobilization efforts will become less arduous.
As certain conditions are met—once a significant number of citizens are paying their taxes, the commune has made accountability an integral part of the process and services have been improved—the commune will be able to turn its attention to taking measures to compel uncooperative taxpayers to pay their taxes.
Small projects carried out by communes
|Budget in USD
|Restoration of Place Carl-Brouard
|Identification of the main streets of Port-au-Prince (538 street signs)
|Development of Place Fort Mercredi, including a multi-sports field
|Street name signage
|Creation of Xaragua Park
|Electrification of Dessources
|Rehabilitation of the cemetery fences
|Rehabilitation of a road section
|Civic numbering of 10,000 houses
People and resources consulted
Port-au-Prince city hall: Edouard Wadner, Deputy City Manager; Anne-René Louis, City Manager
Commune of Petit-Goâve: Jean Samson Limongy, Mayor; Abdallah Moncy, City Manager; Pierre Rony, Communications Officer; Reginald Chéry, Tax Specialist; two members of the Citizens’ Committee
Commune of Grand-Goâve: Maxau Pinchinat, Mayor; Walas Patrick Edmond, City Manager; Mackenro Jean, Communications Officer; Many Smith, Tax Specialist; two members of the Citizens’ Committee
Commune of Léogâne: Jean Samson Limongy, Mayor; Abdallah Moncy, City Manager; Pierre Rony, Communications Officer; Frantz St-Juste, Tax Specialist; two members of the Citizens’ Committee
DATIP: Francis Alphonse, City Manager; Gregory Merveille, Head of Taxation; Maréus Emmanuel, Head of Communications; Elvis Gérard Cineus, Technical Director
- Jacky Beaubrun, Project Manager, PCM2
- Grégory Merveille, Project Officer for Local Finance at the CMRP/DATIP
- Venance Valcin, Head of the tax mobilization project for Port-au-Prince city hall
- Luc Desbiens, Consultant, former Assistant Director of Urban Planning, City of Saguenay;
- Daniel Poitras, Consultant, former Director of Urban Planning and Engineering, City of Saguenay;
- Richard Lafrance, Head of the PCM2’s Port-au-Prince support component, City of Montreal;
- Karim Charef, Planning Advisor, Service de la mise en valeur du territoire et du patrimoine, City of Montreal
- Michel Rosio, Director of Innovation and Development, City of Strasbourg (Cooperation with Jacmel)
- André Lafontant Joseph (2013). "La mobilisation fiscale communale: La voie du développement des communes. "Groupe de recherche et d’interventions en développement et en éducation. 311 pages.
- Lucie Goulet (2014). "Prélèvement de contributions foncières sur les propriétés bâties : Stratégies de trois communes en action."Centre haïtien du leadership et de l’excellence (CLE).
- Marclin Pierre, Principal Mayor of Marchand-Dessalines, and Luc Berthoud, Mayor of La Motte Servolex and Councillor for the department of Savoie (2017). "Coopération Dessalines-Savoie : Retours d’expériences sur 10 ans d’appui à la fiscalité locale." Presentation given within the framework of the Assises de la Coopération décentralisée (conference on decentralized cooperation), Workshop 8 on finance, local taxation and territorial autonomy.
Haiti-Canada Municipal Cooperation Program – Phase 2
The Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM), the Union des municipalités du Québec (UMQ) and the City of Montreal, with funding from Global Affairs Canada (GAC), are implementing the Haiti-Canada Municipal Cooperation Program – Phase 2 (PCM2) in Haiti. With a duration of six years (2014–2020), the PCM2 has a total budget of $21.4 million. The PCM2 builds on the successes of the first phase in order to complement the capacity-building efforts of five local authorities (Port-au-Prince, and the communes of Gressier, Léogâne, Grand-Goâve and Petit-Goâve), three national federations of local elected officials (FENAMH, FENACAH, FENASEC) and the Ministère de l’Intérieur et des Collectivités territoriales (ministry of the interior and territorial communities, or MICT).
The PCM2’s goal is to engage partners in developing a more transparent, efficient and sustainable administration, and to become models for effective municipal management and local service delivery throughout the country. Emphasis is placed on the collection of own-source revenues, transparency and accountability, citizen involvement, the effective delivery of services to the communes and the implementation of projects that improve citizens’ living conditions.
This publication was made possible thanks to funding from the Government of Canada through Global Affairs Canada.